8 many years) was randomized so you can every single day calcium supplementation (step 1,200 mg) to possess several years. If you find yourself zero boost in the danger to own prostate cancer has been advertised while in the a ten.3-12 months go after-right up, calcium supplementation resulted in a significant risk loss in the period comprising out of 24 months once therapy arrive at 2 yrs shortly after medication finished (150). Inside the a glance at the latest books composed in 2009, the united states Company having Health care Research and you can Quality indicated that maybe not every epidemiological degree found a link anywhere between calcium supplements intake and prostate cancer tumors (151). The newest opinion stated that six regarding eleven observational knowledge were unsuccessful to find statistically tall self-confident connections anywhere between prostate cancer tumors and you can calcium supplements intake. Yet, inside the five degree, every day intakes regarding 921 to 2,one hundred thousand milligrams from calcium had been discovered to be from the a keen enhanced chance of development prostate malignant tumors in comparison to consumption starting out-of 455 to a single,100000 milligrams/time (151). Inconsistencies certainly one of education suggest state-of-the-art relations amongst the exposure circumstances to own prostate malignant tumors, and reflect the problems away from evaluating the result out-of calcium supplements consumption for the totally free-way of living someone. Like, the fact people who have highest dairy and you can/otherwise calcium intakes was in fact discovered to be more likely to be engaged in match lifestyles or even more planning to find medical help can also be decrease the brand new statistical requirement for an association having prostate cancer tumors exposure (152).
Create calcium enhance the chance to have heart disease?
Numerous observational degree and you may randomized controlled products have raised questions regarding the potential undesireable effects regarding calcium on cardiovascular exposure. The study of data on Kuopio Osteoporosis Chance Factor and you will Protection (OSTPRE) prospective data discovered that pages of calcium amongst ten,555 Finnish female (age 52-62 age) got an excellent fourteen% higher risk of creating coronary artery condition compared to low-supplement profiles through the a mean realize-right up out-of 6.75 many years (153). The mark study of 23,980 people (35-64 years old) of https://datingranking.net/it/siti-bdsm/ your own Heidelberg cohort of Eu Possible Study towards the Disease and you may Nutrients cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) seen that supplemental calcium supplements intake try certainly on the chance out of myocardial infarction (stroke) but not towards threat of stroke otherwise cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related death shortly after a hateful realize-up of 11 years (154). Yet, the aid of calcium supplements (?400 mg/go out versus. 0 mg/day) are of a greater risk of CVD-related mortality within the 219,059 guys, not for the 169,170 women, as part of the Federal Institute from Wellness (NIH)-AARP Dieting and Health data and you can followed to own a suggest period regarding a dozen many years. CVD death inside the boys has also been seen to be significantly high which have complete (slimming down also supplemental) calcium supplements intakes of just one,five-hundred milligrams/time and you will above (155).
Up until the relationship between calcium and you may prostate cancer is actually made clear, it is sensible for males to eat all in all, 1,100 to just one,200 milligrams/day’s calcium (dieting and drugs shared), which is demanded of the Food and Nutrition Board of your own Institute regarding Medicine (come across RDA) (9)
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).